Table of Contents
Causes of postmenopausal bleeding
Bleeding post menopause condition poses as a symptom of causes that require medical attention. The common conditions which cause bleeding or spotting after menopause include:
1. Endometrial atrophy
The endometrium responds to hormones like estrogen and progesterone. Since the production of hormone levels is low after menopause, the uterine lining results in thinning which triggers bleeding. This is a common condition especially when a woman’s body stops producing estrogen, a hormone that plays an important role in sexual and reproductive development.
2. Vaginal atrophy
A condition that involves thinning of the vaginal tissue. After menopause, low levels of estrogen cause the vaginal walls to become thin, dry, and inflamed which may result in bleeding.
3. Endometrial hyperplasia
A condition where the lining of the uterus grows too much and becomes thick due to the presence of abnormal cells. After menopause, the body may either have too much estrogen or too little progesterone. Due to this imbalance, the endometrium gets thicker and may bleed. At times, the cells in the endometrium can become abnormal leading to cancer if not treated earlier.
4. Endometrial polyps
Endometrial polyps are non-cancerous growths that develop on the lining of the uterus. Some polyps also grow inside the cervical canal causing pain. These polyps cause unusual or heavy bleeding.
5. Uterine fibroids
Uterine Fibroids or leiomyomas are benign non-cancerous tumours that grow during the reproductive years or after menopause. These fibroids develop in the walls of the uterus which may not develop symptoms but may result in pain and bleeding.